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2016年10月11日 来源:新浪博客



Rubric of the Course Paper for “American Literature”


1.        The thesis is written in English, including the citation.( 全文用英文书写, 包括引用文献。)

2.         What are some essential standard of a MLA paper? (MLA 论文基本要求)Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Set the margins of your thesis to one-inch2.54 centimeterson all sides. The paper should be double-space typed. There is one space between every English words. There is no space between the words and punctuations. (12号新罗马字体排版,双倍行距。页边距为2.54厘米,16A4白色纸打印,英文单词之间相距一个空格。单词和标点符号之间没有空格。)

3.         How to Create a Header? 如何编辑页眉?Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your family name, followed by a space with the page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4) and flush with the right margin. Omit the page number on Page One.(编辑页眉,将你的姓和页码标注在右上角,姓和页码之间有一个空格,不用标点符号;上面边距是1.27厘米,右边与正文部分对齐。)

4.         How to deal with the first page? 第一页格式的处理。In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name; your number and your class; the tutor’s name; the course; and the date. The date in MLA format should be written as “day month year.”: i.e. 29 December 2011(without comma between each word and the month should not be abbreviated.) Be sure to use double space. (第一页左上角,纵向排列你的名字;学号、班级;指导老师的名字;课程名称;日期(格式是日月年,中间不用标点符号,月份也不用缩写,如:29 December 2011

5.         How to write a title?(如何写标题?)The title is centered and written in 12-piont Times New Roman font. The title is not bold, underlined, or italicized. But use quotation mark or italic(s) if your title includes works (an article, a poem, or a story) or a book of others, do just as you would do in the text: quote the title of the article, the poem or the story while italicize the book.Make sure the title is properly capitalized.(标题居中,用12号新罗马字体。标题不用黑体,下划线或斜体,如果标题中有已出版的文章,文章部分用双引号,如果是书籍,书籍部分用斜体。如:Sybolism in “Young Good Man Brown.” Sybolism in Scarlet Letter。注意你还需按照规定大写标题的实词和部分虚词的首写字母。(位于标题开头和末尾,如果标题里有冒号的话,冒号后面的虚词也应大写)

6.         How to write an outline? 如何写提纲?((You are not required to write an outline this time).注意:这次没有要求写提纲。)As for the outline of a MLA paper, there is a sample of outline on Page 38 of the fifth edition of MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: A- level: I, II, III, B-level: A, B, C; C-level: 1, 2, 3; D-level:a, b, c, E-level: (1), (2), (3); F-level: (a), (b), (c). (MLA论文的题纲可以参考《MLA科研论文写作规范》第五版38页的提纲:A级:用大写罗马数字I, II, III等;B级:用大写英文字母A, B, C等;C级:用阿拉伯数字123 等;D级:用小写英文字母ab, c ; E级:用阿拉伯数字加括号如(1), (2), (3); F级:用小写英文字母加括号,如:(a), (b), (c).)

7.        (如何写副标题?)As for the heading of the text, title the main sections(B-level) 用不同的字体将文章中B级标题和主标题区分开: 如标题左对齐, 词首字母用12号字体,其余用10号字体,大写锁定键键入,如:主标题是:Symbolism in “Young Good Man Brown”(居中)B级标题是SYMBOLIC MEANING OF NATURE.(左对齐),然后用两倍行距分行,开始正文部分;C级标题大写词首字母,用斜体格式,不分行,直接开始正文部分。如: C级标题 Symblic Meaning of the Forest

8.         How to indent the first paragraph? (如何编辑段落?)Indent the first sentence of each paragraph 0.5inch. Microsoft Word suggests using the Tab key.       (每一段第一句缩进半英寸(1.75厘米),用Tab键。

9.         How many parts are there basically in a thesis? (论文最基本应该包括几部分?)The thesis should have an introductory paragraph, body paragraphs for developing ideas and a paragraph for conclusion. (论文应该包括一段引言部分、几段论证部分和一段结论部分。

10.      How to write the introduction? Is it the introduction of the author or the introduction of the plot of the story? (如何写论文的引言部分?它是作者的生平介绍吗?它是小说的故事情节介绍吗?) No, The introduction is neither the introduction of the author nor that of the plot of the story you study. It is an introduction of the paper you are writing. It should set the context for the rest of the paper. It tells your readers why you are writing and why your topic is important. It ends with a thesis statement which is the position you will develop and support throughout the paper. The thesis statement  guides and controls your paper.(引言部分既不是你所研究的文章的作者介绍,也不是作品的故事情节介绍,而是对你写的论文大致介绍。它为整篇文章定下基调,告知读者你的论文的必要性和重要性;引言部分用一个句子作为全文中心论点结束,中心论点是需要论证阐释的观点,指导和控制全文,使整篇文章不至于偏题。

11.      How to Make the Ideas of a Long Thesis Easier for the Reader to Grasp? (如何使一篇篇幅较长的论文便于读者理解?)If your thesis is a long one, you may want to write about how your paper is organized. This can help your reader to follow your ideas.(如果你的论文比较长,在引言之后接下来一段,你可以介绍你论文的结构,便于读者理解你的观点。)

12.      What are the elements for the body paragraphs? (正文段落的有哪些要素?)Body paragraphs have these four elements: a transition, a topic sentence, evidence and a brief wrap-up sentence. At the beginning of your developing paragraphs, make sure you have transitory words, phrases or paragraphs to have each part connected logically together. You’d better begin each paragraph with a topic sentence and several other sentences of instances to support it, and the last sentence to wrap up for a conclusion while transitioning to the next paragraph.(每一个自然段开始,要注意用过渡段的连接词,词组或句子,把每一部分串联成一个符合逻辑的整体。每一段开始用一个中心句,接下来用列子证明,句与句之间要有表示逻辑关系的词,词组,最后用一句话概括整段大意,并与下一段自然过渡。)

13.      How to quote in the text? (如何在正文中引用文献?)In-text citations occur after the quote but before the period. The author’s/authors’ name/s go before the page number with no comma in between. i.e. “A lone woman is troubled with such dreams and such thoughts that she’s afraid of herself sometimes” (Hawthorne 431). If you go on to quote the same work, put the page number in a bracket only. i.e. “She’s a blessed angel on earth; and after this one night I’ll cling to her skirts and follow her to heaven”(432). 文中引用文献的标注在引用部分后面,句号前面,作者姓空格页码,中间没有逗号),如果同一页引用同一作品,则只标页码。

14.      Use block quote when quotations are longer than four-typed lines. Block quotations begin on a new line, are double-spaced and indented one-inch from the margin. Do not use quotation marks. The citation information (the author’s name and the page number) follow. (如果被引用的部分超过三行,则引用整段。整段引用另起一行,双倍行距,自页边空白整体缩进一英寸(2.54厘米),不用引号,末尾添加引用来源(作者姓空格页码)。

15.      If you delete words from the original quote, insert an ellipsis, three periods with a space before and after each one.(如果你去掉引文中的一些单词,用省略号(三个前后有空格的小圆点)。

16.      If a source has more than three authors, use the first author’s surname followed by “et al.” i.e. (Barker et al. 23) (如果文献作者是三位以上,文中引用只用第一位作者的姓,后面是空格加“et al." 再空格加页码)

17.Citation from a website:(如何引用网络文章)

A. If the website has no page number,you simply use the author's surname after the period.i.e. According to research at Johns Hopkins University, the human brain has developed by building on primitive brain structures that were responsible for processing emotions and feelings (Zull).

如果网上文章没有页码,你只需用作者的姓.如 According to research at Johns Hopkins University, the human brain has developed by building on primitive brain structures that were responsible for processing emotions and feelings (Zull)


B. If you don’t know the author’s name, use the title of the article to replace it:According to research at Johns Hopkins University, the human brain has developed by building on primitive brain structures that were responsible for processing emotions and feelings (“The Art of the Changing Brain”).如果你不知道作者的姓名,也没有页码,你只需用文章的标题。 如: According to research at Johns Hopkins University, the human brain has developed by building on primitive brain structures that were responsible for processing emotions and feelings. (The Art of the Changing Brain)


In works cited section:


Last name, first name. Title of Article. Associated publication/college/etc., year published. Web. Date of access.

在文末引用中,其格式为 作者姓,作者名.文章标题,相关出版社或大学等,出版年,web,访问日期。见一下英文


Zull, James E. School of Education at Johns Hopkins University – News from NeuroSciences. Version #10. Johns Hopkins University, 2010. Web. 4 October 2012.

C.Citing sources quoted in another source 如何引用二手文献

.It is sometimes necessary to quote or make reference to a work that you have not actually read but only encountered in the work of another. Even though you have not read the quoted source you must acknowledge the original source of the information, as well as the work in which it appears, in a parenthetical note.有些时候我们没有读到原文,但却在其他文章中读到或遇到。尽管你没有读到该文章引用的原文,你仍需要在引用二手文献的同时也引用原文,并把它们同时写入括号里。

The name, date and page reference of the work in which information originated should appear first, followed by 'cited' and then the name etc. of the work in which the information was found. Only the work you have read should appear in the reference list at the end of the work.

如 第二文献作者(第一文献出现年份,页码“cited" 第一文献作者,第二文献年份,页码)


Neville (1990 cited Wilson 1998, p.89) devised the standard criteria for food tasting surveys.

Although the results of the Bristol Sausage Survey have been described by one scholar as 'seriously misleading' (Brown 1990, p.65 cited Jones 2004, p.87), they have had a great influence on the marketing strategy of industry leaders.

How do I cite a source that is quoted in another source?


Scenario: You have read a journal article written by John Smith. In the article, John Smith quotes Jane Adams' book Chicken Little (which you have not used in your own research). You would like to quote Jane Adams in your own paper.  MLA encourages you to find the original source and cite Jane Adams directly, since it helps you evaluate whether John Smith has accurately quoted and represented Jane Adams' ideas.  However, if you don't have access to Chicken Little, you'll need to use an indirect reference (MLA 6.4.7).


  1. Include an entry for the source you have in hand (in this case John Smith's journal article) in your reference list.
  2. In your parenthetical (in-text) reference after the quote, credit the original source (in this case the Chicken Little book) adding the words "qtd. in" to show that your got the Adams quote from Smith and didn't verify it independently.

Here's how your indirect in-text reference will look:

...Adams asserts in her book Chicken Little that "without a doubt, the chicken came before the egg" (qtd. in J. Smith 21).

Citing unwritten sources quoted in another source


When making reference to the spoken words of someone other than the author recorded in a text, cite the name of the person and the name of the author, date and page reference of the work in which the quote or reference appears.


Examples: In a recent interview (Jones 2004, p.77), Henry Howard said that the British Sausage industry has suffered from decades of under investment in research and development.

As Henry Haward sadi in an interview with Jones (2004, p70),"Birish sausages are widely regarded as the best in the world."

D. Source with an unknown author is cited by a shortened title.(The first word of the title with a quotation mark:i.e. "Automatically")

17.     Conclusion wrap up what you have discussed in your paper. Because it is B-level, the first paragraph is not indented. (结尾部分总结论文中讨论的话题。因它是B级标题,第一段不缩进。)

18.      How to Use Endnotes? (如何使用尾注?) Use endnotes to explain something that doesn’t fit in with the rest of the paragraph. Avoid lengthy discussion in the endnote. Endnote begins on a new page after the paper but before the Work/s Cited page. Double space all entries and indent each entry 0.5 inch from the margin.(如果有和本段不相吻合,可以用尾注加以详细解释。尾注要简洁,避免冗长的讨论。尾注在正文后另起一页,置于文献引用页之前,用双行距,左对齐,页边距是半英寸,即1.75厘米。 

19.    . How to format the Work/s Cited page ?(引用作品格式) 

  • The Work/s Cited page is a list of all the sources you cited in your paper. It includes books, journals, magazines, online resources, films, CD-Rom, interviewclassroom notes, blog, e-mail, diaries, etc.引用作品页是在你论文最后列出你文中引用的信息的来源, 包括书籍,期刊,报刊,网络,电影,光盘,访谈,课堂笔记,博客,电子邮件,日记等)

  •        The Works Cited page begins on a new page. Center the title Works Cited without underlining, bolding, italicizing it. If there is only one entry, write Work Cited.引用作品页置于尾注页之后,另起一页。将Works Cited 的标题居中,不加下划线,不加斜体。如果只引用一项,则用单数“Work Cited."

  •         List the entries in the  alphebetically order. 按照字母表的顺序排列。

  •  MLA now requires all sources to have a publication marker. For example, books receive the marker “print” after the citation. Online sources have the marker of "Web." CD-Rom, E-mail, Blog for resources from CD-Rom, E-mail, and Blog respectively. 现在MLA要求所有引用文献要有一个出版标志." 比如,书藉后用"Print.," 网络信息用"Web" ,光盘用CD-Rom,博客用Blog.电子邮件用e-mail.(详见以下例子。)

  •           If a source doesn’t have a list of publisher, and you can infer who the publisher is. Place the publisher’s name in brackets.(如果原文没有出版社,但你能够猜到出版商是谁,可以用括号把出版商括起来。

  •         Online Resources Citation:  MLA no long requires URLs in the Works Cited, instead, you must write “web” before the date of access in the entry. This serves as the entry’s publication marker. i.e.Contributors' names. "Title of Resource." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, Last edited date. Web. Date of access. 对于网络信息,MLA 不再要求给出详细,但你必须在你访问的时间之前注明“Web”作为出版标记。如:作者姓,名. “文章名”. 网站,最后编辑日月年. Web. 访问日月年.

Russell, Tony, Allen Brizee, and Elizabeth Angeli. "MLA Formatting and Style Guide." The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 4 Apr. 2010. Web. 20 July 2010.

Note: 短篇小说课本引用格式:小说作者姓, . “文章标题.” 论文集名称. Ed. 论文集编者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 起始页码.Print.

 Lawrence,D.H. "The Rocking Horse Winner." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Ed. R.V.Cassill. 5th. ed. New York: Norton, 1995. 543-559. Print.



1.        现在MLA不再在书名下用下划线,而是用斜体字。

2.        现在MLA要求用print 标记公开出版的纸质刊物的出版特征,包括书,杂志,报纸。

3.        现在MLA不要求网络信息的详细,但要用Web 标记信息来源的出版特征。


1.  独著 

姓,名. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print.

Bambrough, Renford. The Philosophy of Aristotle. New York: The New American Library, 1963.Print. 

2. 两至三名作者 

姓,名, 名姓, 名姓, and 名姓. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print.

Horton, Rod W., and Herbert W. Edwards. Backgrounds of American Literary Thought. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1952.Print.

Atwan, Robert, Donald Mcquade, and John Wright. Edsels, Luckies, and Frigidaires: Advertising the American Way. New York: Dell, 1979.Print. 

3. 四名或以上作者 

姓,名,  et al. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print.

Belenky, Mary Field, et, al. Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice, and Mind. New York: Basic, 1986.Print. 

4. 机构作者 

机构名称. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. 4th ed. Washington: American Psychological Association, 1994.Print. 

5. 匿名作者 

    书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print.

The New York Times Atlas of the World. New York: New York Times Books, 1980. Print. 

6. 同一作者两本以上著作 


Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence, a Theory of Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.Print.

---. A Map of Misreading. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.Print. 

7. 编著 


    , , ed. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print.

Frye, Northrop, ed. Romanticism Reconsidered. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963.Print. 


    , , and 名姓, eds. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print.

    Glotfelty, Cheryll, and Harold Fromm, eds. The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology. Atherns: The University of Georgia Press, 1966.Print. 


    第一编者姓, , et al. 书名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print.

Donadio, Stephen, et al., eds. Emerson and His Legacy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986.Print. 

8.  译著 

    原作者姓, . 书名. Trans. 译者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年.Print.

Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. Trans. James Strachey. New York: Norton, !961.Print. 

9.  再版著作   

姓,名. 书名. 版别序号 ed. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print.

Fromkin, Victoria, and Robert Rodman. An Introduction to Language. 5th ed. Ft. Worth: Harcourt, 1993. Print. 

10. 论文集中的文章 

    文章作者姓, . “文章标题.” 论文集名称. Ed. 论文集编者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 起始页码.Print.

Wellek, Rene. “Romanticism RE-examined.” Romanticism Reconsidered. Ed. Northrop Frye. New York: Columbia University Press, 1963. 75-98.Print.

Hall, Stuart, “Minial Selves.” Studying Culture. Eds. Ann Gray and Jim McGuigan. Arnold: Hodder Headline Group, 1993. 131-42. Print. 

Note: 短篇小说课本引用格式:小说作者姓, . “文章标题.” 论文集名称. Ed. 论文集编者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 起始页码.Print.

 Lawrence,D.H., "The Rocking Horse Winner." The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. Ed. R.V.Cassill. 5th ed.New York: Norton, 1995. 543-559. Print.

11. 多卷、多册或再版著作 


, . 书名. 卷目 vols. Trans.译者姓名. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.Print.

Plato. Laws. 2 vols. Trans. R. G. Bury. Leob Classical Libery. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1926. Print. 

12.  前言,后记 

前言作者姓,名. “Introduction (Forewords Preface).” 书名. By 书目作者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 前言起始页码.Print. 

后记作者姓,名. “Afterwords.” 书名. By 书目作者名姓. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代. 后记起始页码.Print.

Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr. “Introduction.” Pioneer Women: Voices from the Kansas Frontier. By Joanna L. Stratton. New York: Simon, 1981. 11-15.Print. 

13.  期刊文章 

     文章作者姓, . “文章标题.” 杂志名称 卷号. 期号 (出版年代): 起始页码.Print.

     Maguire, James H. “The Canon and the 'Diminished Thing.” American Literature 60 (1988): 645-52.Print.

Davis, Sherri Heckler. “The Zen Art of Prewriting.” New Mexico English Journal12. 1 (1988): 21-23.Print. 

14.  周刊或双周刊文章 

     文章作者姓, . “文章标题.” 杂志名称 出版日月年: 起始页码..Print.

Hoagland, Edward. “Standing Tough in the Desert.” New York Times Book Review 7 May 1989: 44-45.Print. 

15.  月刊或双月刊文章 

     文章作者姓, . “文章标题.” 杂志名称 出版月年: 起始页码..Print.

Weiss, Philip. “The Book Thief: A True Tale of Bibliomania.” Harper’s January 1994: 37-56.Print. 

16.  报纸文章 

     文章作者姓, . “文章标题.” 报纸名称 出版日月年, , , 页码..Print.

Intraub, Anna Jinagwang. “How I learned to Read.” New York Times. 13 January 2002, Section 4, Column 6, Page 16.Print.

如果作者未知, 版栏信息缺失, 格式为:

     “文章标题.” 报纸名称 出版日月年: 页码..Print.

“Learn English through Football.” 21st Century Supplement 21 Feb. 2002: III.Print. 

17. Multimedia sources: (多媒体资料) MLA format for multimedia Sources requires a medium description at the end of the citation. Film, DVD, Radio, Web. E-mail, Presentation and other descriptions should be used to indicate the type of multimedia that is being referrenced. MLA格式要求多媒体资料的引用要在应用信息后面加上媒体形式:如电影,DVD,收音机,网络,电子邮件,演讲等。


l        General Format: Author(corporations, governments): Title of Site. Sponsor. Date Created (use n.d. if not given) medium. Date accessed.

基本格式:作者(机构,):网页标题。网站,网页制作日月年(若无,用n. d.)媒介. 访问日月年。

l        整个网站:如:United States Environmental Protection Agency: Drinking Water Standards. EPA, 8 July 2004. Web. 24 Jan. 2006.

l        网页上一篇不知发表日期的文章:

Shiva. “Biothics: A Third World Issue.” Nativeweb. Nativeweb, n. d. Web. 22 Feb. 2006

l        网上著作

作者姓, . 书名 出版年代. 检索日月年.Web

Emerson, Ralph waldo. Essays: First Series.1841.12 Feb. 1997. Web. 

l        网络文章

     作者姓, . 文章名称. 来源名称. 最后编辑日月年.Web. 检索日月年

Fischer, Michael F. “Worthless Words for the Day.” 21 November 2005.Web. 8 May 2007 19. 

l        博客:作者姓, . 博客名称.  来源名称 最近编辑日月年.Web. 检索日月年 Li ChengPeng. Li Cheng Peng. Sina.com, 30 Dec. 2011. Web. 4 Jan. 2011.

⑵电邮:作者. 主题. 电邮大意. 发邮件日月年. E-mail.

i.e. Mu Xinghua. “Re: The Main Characters in ‘Flowering Judas’”. Message to the teacher. 20 Dec. 2011. E-mail.

⑶光盘:     作者姓, . “条目标题.” 光盘名称. (其他信息). CD-ROM. 出版地: 出版社, 出版年代.

“Communion.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD-ROM. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992.

视频: 作者. “视频标题. 视频用途. 网站 上传日月年. Web. 访问视频日月年.

Wang Xinguo et. al. “Kew Gardens: A CWNU Version.” Project: Assignment. Sina.com. 7 July 2006. Web. 4 Jan. 2012

⑸演讲:(Lecture, or Public Address

演讲者,演讲场合,演讲地点,时间 Presentation.

Wang Yan. et. al. “Success and Morality.” International CCTV Cup English Speech Contest. SWNU. 11 Nov. 2011. Presentation.


关于美国文学课程论文MLA格式的细则附APA论文格式Printer-friendly version

Q: Suppose I can’t determine the author of a source, should I just cite “Anonymous”?
A: This is an outmoded practice. If no author is listed but an affiliated organization is given, consider the name of that organization to be the source, both in-text and on the references page.

Q: What if I can’t find either author or year?  May I cite the source in-text just by its title?
A: Typically, yes. Supply the title (or a shortened form of it) in-text in quotation marks, then give fuller bibliographic information on the references page.

Q: When citing web sources, should I give the URL within the text itself?
A: No—this is non-standard and, frankly, comes off as pretty lame. Provide the URL on the references page, but handle the in-text citation as you would any other, providing author-year or source number. Unless the nature of the source as being web-based is highly relevant to context, the reader in the act of reading should be virtually unaware (no pun intended) that you are using a web source. Never attempt an in-text citation with something as informal and downright silly as “According to the internet . . .”

Q: Suppose a web page has nothing but a title on it, and I have no idea who authored it?
A: Then you would provide only that information available, in particular the URL and the date accessed, on your references page. As always, be sure to carefully assess the page’s quality and credibility too.

Q: What about information obtained verbally from a credible source?
A: In-text, handle the citation as you normally would, giving author-year or source number; on the references page, follow the person’s name with his or her title or affiliation (you could even supply the party’s mailing address), then the words “personal communication.”

Q: What if I’m citing e-mail, or a newsgroup, or a gopher site, or a CD-ROM? How do I handle this on the references page?
A: For such specialized concerns, you need to consult a more specific style guide. Online, I can recommend online! a reference guide to using internet sources.

Q: I’m trying to return to a page I visited last week, and I get error messages. How do I find it?
A: After rechecking your typing, try truncating a portion of the URL. Cutting off the end of the address frequently takes you back to the page’s author and you can try relocating from there. Of course, the page might indeed be gone, entirely eliminated from cyberspace.

Q: How important is a small detail such as punctuation on my references page?
A: Consistency within your document is what matters. Professors rarely deduct points over such small issues, but they do expect you to pay close attention to them and be consistent in your practices.

Q: Suppose I’m citing an author who cited someone else? Do I cite the original author or just the one I read?
A: You should only formally cite the author that you actually read, although a narrative mention of the other source within an in-text sentence is often appropriate. For example: “Kunkle (2001) reports that a 1998 study by Edmund Eberly revealed . . .” Of course, if time permits and the circumstances suggest you should, you might try to track down the original source and interpret it for yourself.

Q: Are footnotes “in” or “out”?
A: They’re definitely “out.” Try to avoid them. Journals rarely use them, preferring an endnotes page with explanatory notes at the end of the text. Even this practice is rare except in scholarly works, where the author chooses to offer explanatory side discussions.

Q: What’s the difference between a references page and a bibliography?
A: A references page contains only those references that were directly cited in the text. A bibliography page is more of a reading list—it contains references referred to in the text plus the chief publications that you consulted in a general way. Some people—even some professors—use the two terms loosely and interchangeably, but journals tend to follow the distinction I just provided.

Q: What if I can’t find a source in the library, but the computer tells me it’s on the shelves?
A: Ask a librarian (this answer applies to questions I haven’t listed here as well). My experience is that most librarians are terribly helpful and kind to serious, respectful students.

Q: I’m old-fashioned and I still believe in books, so can you recommend some print resources to answer specific questions about citing web sources?
A: Good for you. I highly recommend Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information, by Xia Li and Nancy B. Crane. Also, the most modern library editions of major style guides (The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing; The Chicago Manual of Style) have thorough information and discussion on citing web sources.


: 由于MLA格式较为繁杂, 此处未包含的具体格式请参阅《MLA科研论文写作规范》的最新版本。


APA Citation Style(APA 论文引用规范)
APA citation style refers to the rules and conventions established by the American Psychological Association for documenting sources used in a research paper. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference lis
t and vice versa.
APA论文写作规范是由美国心理学会为论文引用文献(the American Psychological Association )确立的一整套标准格式。包括文中引用和文末引用文献清单。每一个文中引用对应一个文末一个完整的引用,反之亦然。
The examples of APA styles and formats listed on this page include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research. For additional examples and more detailed information about APA citation style, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.
Also, for automatic generation of citations in appropriate citation style, use a bibliographic citation management program such as Refworks or EndNote. You can find more information on this in our Citation Management page.
Reference Citations in Text
In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited.
Works by a single author
The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.
from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945)
If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information in parentheses.
Simon (1945) posited that

Works by multiple authors
When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&).
as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998)
In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and."
as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated
When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.
Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found
In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication.
Kahneman et al. (1991) found

Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.
The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference.
(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)
When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty.
(NIMH, 2007)

Works with no author
When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report.
on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997)
Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981)

Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date.
on climate change (Anonymous, 2008)

Specific parts of a source
To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation.
(Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96)
De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).
If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and following paragraph.
(Mönnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)

Reference List
References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source.
Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.
Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.
Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title.
Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.
Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent".
Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals.
Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online.
Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from.
Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article, include the date that you retrieved the information.
* The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication. For more detailed information on these publication standards, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, or consult with your instructors or editors to determine their style preferences.
** See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References for information on how to format URLs that take up more than one line.
Articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers
References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers.
Journal article, one author, accessed online
Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

Journal article, two authors, accessed online
Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 286-295. doi:10.1037/1065- 9293.59.4.286

Journal article, more than two authors, accessed online
Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63(3), 182-196. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.182

Article from an Internet-only journal
Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle

Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI)
Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune, 158(2), 73-79. Retrieved from Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com

Magazine article, in print
Kluger, J. (2008, January 28). Why we love. Time, 171(4), 54-60.

Newspaper article, no author, in print
As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street Journal, p. A9.

Newspaper article, multiple authors, discontinuous pages, in print
Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A12.

References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
No Author or editor, in print
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.

One author, in print
Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.

Two authors, in print
Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Corporate author, author as publisher, accessed online
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Tasmanian year book 2000 (No. 1301.6). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CA2568710006989... $File/13016_2000.pdf

Edited book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

References for dissertations should include the following elements: author, date of publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number, include it at the end of the citation.

Dissertation, accessed online
Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 327681)

Essays or chapters in edited books
References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.
One author
Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Two editors
Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Encyclopedias or dictionaries and entries in an encyclopedia
References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. For sources accessed online, include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time.

Encyclopedia set or dictionary
Sadie, S., & Tyrrell, J. (Eds.). (2002). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed., Vols. 1-29). New York, NY: Grove.

Article from an online encyclopedia
Containerization. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://search.eb.com

Encyclopedia article
Kinni, T. B. (2004). Disney, Walt (1901-1966): Founder of the Walt Disney Company. In Encyclopedia of Leadership (Vol. 1, pp. 345-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Research reports and papers
References to a report must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and name of publisher. If the issuing organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. If it was accessed online, include the URL.

Government report, accessed online
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Medicaid drug price comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-05-00240.pdf

Government reports, GPO publisher, accessed online
Congressional Budget Office. (2008). Effects of gasoline prices on driving behavior and vehicle markets: A CBO study (CBO Publication No. 2883). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/88xx/doc8893/01-14-GasolinePrices.pdf

Technical and/or research reports, accessed online
Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood (NBER Working Paper 14124). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

Document available on university program or department site
Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain. Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Web site: http://pesd.stanford.edu/publications/gazprom_gas_giant_under_strain/

Audio-visual media
References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If the medium is indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed.
Achbar, M. (Director/Producer), Abbott, J. (Director), Bakan, J. (Writer), & Simpson, B. (Producer) (2004). The corporation [DVD]. Canada: Big Picture Media Corporation.

Audio recording
Nhat Hanh, T. (Speaker). (1998). Mindful living: a collection of teachings on love, mindfulness, and meditation [Cassette Recording]. Boulder, CO: Sounds True Audio.

Motion picture
Gilbert, B. (Producer), & Higgins, C. (Screenwriter/Director). (1980). Nine to five [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.

Television broadcast
Anderson, R., & Morgan, C. (Producers). (2008, June 20). 60 Minutes [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

Television show from a series
Whedon, J. (Director/Writer). (1999, December 14). Hush [Television series episode]. In Whedon, J., Berman, G., Gallin, S., Kuzui, F., & Kuzui, K. (Executive Producers), Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros..

Music recording
Jackson, M. (1982). Beat it. On Thriller [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Music.

Undated Web site content, blogs, and data
For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers, books, and reports, keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. For electronic and online materials, include stable URL or database name. Include the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessed.

Blog entry
Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message posted to http://www.techcrunch.com

Professional Web site
National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html

Data set from a database
Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2008, from Bloomberg database.
Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Botswana. (2008). Gross domestic product per capita 06/01/1994 to 06/01/2008 [statistics]. Available from CEIC Data database.

Entire Web site
When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site), no Reference List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper.
Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology (http://www.witchcraft.psmedia.com/).

For more detailed information on APA citation style such as information on articles in press, journal special issues and supplements, translations, et cetera, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.

Other citation guides and useful Web sites:
American Psychological Association's Web site
Purdue University Online Writing Lab's APA Formatting and Style Guide
Diana Hacker's Research and Documentation Online
Landmark's Son of Citation Machine




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